- This project must be emailed by 3:00 PM on Friday, Sept. 17th.
This assignment requires you to develop your own statement answering the question "What is design?"
In completing your paragraph (minimum of 125 words and suggested maximum of 300 words), you must include elements of purpose and describe
the design process. If you use concepts that are not your own, you must cite your sources as well. Avoid
circular definitions (i.e. don't use the word 'design' in the definition of design!) Please note that ABSOLUTELY NO MORE THAN ONE QUOTATION MAY BE USED
in your definition and, of course, you must cite the source of the quotation. You may rephrase the words of others, but no "wholesale cut and paste" will be tolerated. As a starting point, you may want to look
at some of the websites under Designers and the Design Cycle
on the Main Links page of this site.
Here is a video to help you get started with your definition of design:
And here is a second video to expand your thinking in regard to what is involved in the design process:
Click here to access a website that presents multiple concepts that may be helpful to you.
Minimum requirements - (Use the checkboxes on the left to keep track of what you have completed.)
1. View the linked videos in preparation for your writing.
2. Read the linked documents in preparation for your writing.
3. Write your definition and save the Word file on your drive in your Assisgnments folder as "YourLastName_Definition_of_Design.
The IB Design Cycle (for use by Class of 2009 and later)
1. General notes in regard to each stage of the Design Cycle Model (DCM)
Identifying or clarifying a need or opportunity:
The context of the problem is described and a concise brief stated
This stage may begin with a problem, an identified need, a market opportunity, a demand, a desire to add value to
an existing product, or a response to opportunities created by technological developments.
The initial problem is a collection of constraints, requirements, and possibilities
From this collection, the designer must form a coherent pattern
Researching stage (analyzing, researching, and specifying):
Developing the specification begins with an initial set of specifications
The specifications are then refined to culminate in a final product design specification (PDS)
Divergent thinking is used to consider ways the problem may be solved.
The starting point for developing ideas is the design specifications.
Proposals and ideas should be evaluated against the specifications.
Relevant research used to rate the ideas in terms of their usefulness.
A variety of approaches should be used, and different possibilities explored and analysed, before deciding on the most suitable solution.
Developing the Chosen Solution:
A final concept is developed taking into account
the conflicting needs of the manufacturer and
the user, and the requirement of the design as
set out in the specifications.
A complete proposal is developed based upon the research and the designer’s personal ideas.
This stage involves detailed drawings (of a style relevant to the task).
Realizing a Solution:
This involves the completion of a tangible initial solution to the problem.
Manufacturing techniques may be used to develop the final outcome.
The final outcome could be a functional prototype or a limited run manufactured product.
The final outcome is tested and evaluated against the requirements set out in the specification.
Recommendations for modifications to the design are made.
A reiteration process should now begin (Remember, the DCM is cyclical, not linear!)
Need an acronym to help you remember the order of the Design Cycle? Here you go...
Overview - Our environment surrounds us with thousands of products that are the end result of a designer's work. All of
us have used products which, as the result of our positive experience with the product, have come to envision as a marvelous example of design. But,
each of us also has plenty of familiarity with products that fall short of our performance expectations for those products. We may generally refer to such instances
as examples of "bad design."
The purpose of this project is to select products that exemplify poor or flawed design standards,
methods, or components and document these shortcomings with text and photographs (optional.)
Following this, the student will describe where in the design cycle they believe the error or
oversight occurred and how it could have occurred. Finally, the student will outline corrective
actions that could be taken to eliminate this poor design element from future versions of the
product or system.
to see the detailed procedures for the Bad Designs Project.
"I think all great innovations are built on rejections."
invention -1. The process of discovering a principle. (IBO)
2. A technical advance in a particular field often resulting in a novel product. (IBO)
The business of putting an invention in the marketplace and making it a success. (IBO)
In this assignment you will select an invention or innovation  that has demonstrated significant influence on our technological culture.
Then, after declaring your selection with Mr. Patterson (no duplicates permitted), you will describe the design process/procedures that were used to develop
this innovation, analyze its product life cycle (indicating whether
the product is in the early, mature, late stages), and highlight the impact of the product on society. In addition, be certain to describe how this innovation
demonstrates incremental and/or radical design. Finally,
you will create a PowerPoint presentation that will be presented to the class. The detailed requirements for this presentation are given below.
Minimum requirements - (Use the checkboxes on the left to keep track of what you have completed.)
1. Select your topic (duplicate topics will not be permitted.)
2. The PowerPoint presentation must have a minimum of 6 slides and no more than 12 slides.
3. Your presentation should be no less than 6 minutes and no more than 8 minutes in length.
4. Your presentation should place significant emphasis on the impact of this technology on society.
5. Your presentation should explain whether this is an example of incremental or radical design
and explain why this is the case. In the event that both radical and incremental progressions occurred,
explain the nature of these design changes in the product and state how the cumulative effect has made this a better product.
6. Your presentation should explain whether this product/technology was an invention or an innovation and why.
7. You must describe the stage that this product or innovation is at in the product life cycle.
8. Explain whether or not you found evidence that the designer/inventor followed either formally or informally the DCM
(Design Cycle Model) in bringing this from concept to actual product or application.
9. Conclude your presentation with a quotation from the inventor or development team that conveys to us the
original intent of the inventor or the complexity of the process (s)he/they went through in bringing this concept
to actual existence or implementation.
10. You will present in front of the class on the following dates:
Mod 2 will present on Thursday, Oct. 2nd and Friday, Oct. 3rd.
Mod 4 will present on Thursday, Oct. 2nd and Monday, Oct. 5th.
11. Presentations will be made by chronological order of topics.
12. Your design layout must be legible.
13. Include a title screen with your topic, your name(s), IB Design Tech Year 1, and the date on it.
14. Your presentation should include text + graphics. Minimize the amount of text on each screen.
15. All text and graphics which are not your own should be fully cited on the final slide.
16. Your presentation should not be a reading of text from your slides.
17. After presenting, please submit any presentation notes or outlines you have worked from to Mr. Patterson for IA inclusion.
to read about a real innovator, Akio Morita, the man who made Sony a recognized brand everywhere!
Overview - In this assignment you will select four (4) consumer products to analyze by material properties. After declaring each object
with Mr. Patterson (no duplicates will be permitted), you will analyze the product to determine five (5) essential properties the designer had to take into consideration in selecting
the materials from which to manufacture the object.
Rules to follow for the assignment:
You may use each aesthetic, chemical, and other property only once in the entire assignment
The mechanical properties may be used more than once if appropriate, but avoid using the same property for each object)
You must use a minimum of 10 different mechanical and physical properties in the assignment.
Use the terms high, medium, or low to indicate the desired degree of the property in the product
Make certain you write your justification as a complete sentence
Each object must be analyzed using at least 3 properties that are IB properties.
Each object must be analyzed using a total of 5 properties
Extra credit will be given to two objects that are analyzed using only IB properties
Categories for Objects
Object 1 - Pocket sized object
Object 2 - Desktop item (something typically found on or in a desk.)
Object 3 - Furniture or decoration (typically found inside a home.)
Object 4 - Kitchen or Workshop device or tool
Please note: No duplicate objects are permitted to be selected in your class.
A word processed document is the preferred format for this assignment. Here is an example of the format that will be used to analyze the products you select:
Properties of Materials Lab
Your Name Here
Object No. 1
Brand or Manufacturer:
Model No. -
Picture of object: (use digital camera or Internet)
Specific Materials - ___________ , ____________
Material Category - ___________ , ____________
#Property Name (Category)Degree of PropertyJustification
1. Whatever property Whatever degree Justify as a complete sentence.
2. Whatever property Whatever degree Justify as a complete sentence.
3. Whatever property Whatever degree Justify as a complete sentence.
4. Whatever property Whatever degree Justify as a complete sentence.
5. Whatever property Whatever degree Justify as a complete sentence.
to see the IBDT Material Properties Matrix .
to see a list of various materials that are commonly used in products.
Here is a chart displaying the IB properties as well as the non-IB properties:
Need help remembering these? Check out the text in blue...
Maximum Service Temperature
Stiffness (Flexure Strength)
If the material is a plastic, does it have a recycling mark to help you determine
the type of plastic?
to see what type of plastic is indicated by the recycling mark.
Overview - CAD (or CADD) stands for Computer-Aided Design and Drafting. CAD programs differ from painting and drawing programs in that the ability to work to a high degree of precision is an essential part of the program.
A paint program lets you work pixel by pixel (with an array of pixels) to edit the image. If the picture shows a person and a building, there is no logical distinction between them - its just an array of colored dots that you can manipulate with painting tools.
A draw program goes a step further - it is composed of separate entities or objects, such as circles, lines, etc. It may provide facilities to group these into "car" and "building", but the final result is still an image described in terms of its appearance on paper, rather than by mathematical definition.
A CAD program introduces the concept of real-world measurement. A car or building can be drawn as if it were life-size, and later configured and scaled for printing on paper at any desired scale. Useful measurements (dimensions) may be obtained from the CAD drawing and they should properly correspond to the real world object, if the drawing was created correctly. The information that comprises a CAD design is geometric and, with newer programs, algebraic data. By defining the drawing using these data types, the ability to use the computational power of the computer is made possible. For example, an engineer might design from a three-dimensional approach and allow the software to interpret and build the orthographic (multiview) portion of the drawing.
In this assignment , you will begin to work with CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems including AutoCAD and Pro/Desktop. We will work with the two packages because each takes a slightly different approach to design.
Note: As part of the Technology in Schools Program (license #1071), Mr. Patterson is authorized to issue each student one copy of Pro/Desktop version 8 (Sorry, PC versions only are available) for you to take home and use on your home computer. Please ask if you would like a copy to work with at home.
Advantages and Disadvantages of CAD -
Some of the advantages of CAD over manual drafting are:
Drawing to scale. In almost all instances the CAD operator will produce a drawing that is drawn actual size. There is no more remembering which scale is which and no need for the continual mind set of , "I am drawing at 1/2" = 1'."
Drawing set up time. Being able to have a set of drawings which already have been set up with the proper borders, title boxes, schedules, and any other pertinent information can save hours of layout and lettering time.
Drawing efficiently. CAD programs often have built in tools which give the operator the capabilities of saving a great deal of time. For instance, if the operator is working on a drawing which has sixty detailed sprinkler heads distributed across a ceiling, it becomes very time consuming to draw every head one at a time. With a CAD package the operator can draw the head once and then "copy, array, mirror, or offset" as needed. This same drawing "block" or "part" could also be "inserted" into other drawings so that it need never be drawn again.
Drawing modifications or revisions. It is very rare that any drawing is completely correct the first time that it is drawn. Modifying drawings is an integral part of any CAD package. To be able to take a drawing , change a line or two, and have it updated in 10 to fifteen minutes, versus manually re-drawing an entire drawing, or "smudging" up a drawing with erasures, has become more important as the need for fast accurate results has increased.
Photo quality presentation drawings. Photographic quality presentation drawings may be produced quickly and easily from CAD designs. The appearance of the part using various textures and materials may be easily evaluated.
Some of the disadvantages of CAD compared to manual drafting are:
Equipment is expensive. Most CAD systems require a relatively powerful computer and network (for multiple users) in order to function efficiently. The initial cost
of the computer equipment may be prohibitive.
Software is expensive. Most CAD programs suitable for commercial use cost thousands of dollars per station. The initial cost of the CAD software may be prohibitive.
Need to train staff. All CAD programs require users to be trained on the system. This costs employers time in the form of training and money in the form of training costs.
Sample design (BORING!!!!! ) by Mr. Patterson
Your CAD activity will be completed using PRO/Desktop 8. The title of your PRO/Desktop drawing is YourLastNameWasteCan. For this drawing, you will create a 3-D waste container for use in an office.
An entire series of tutorials for learning and mastering PRO/Desktop 8 may be viewed by clicking
Choose Online Tutorials from the menu. You must have Adobe Reader or Acrobat to view the files.
Your waste container must meet the following specifications:
1. The waste can must be able to be packaged for shipping inside a cardboard box
that has interior dimensions of 12" wide, 12" long, and 24" tall.
2. The waste can must not have design characteristics that would make it dangerous
to use (sharp edges) or subject to unnecessary failure (failure by stress concentration.)
to see some basic design principles you should understand .
3. You should begin the design process by writing a list of at least 4 specifications for your design.
Remember, specifications must be able to be evaluated for completion. Therefore, "The waste
container will look really cool and modern." would not be a good specification.
4. Create a minimum of two concept sketches for the waste container. Add annotation to help understand
your design. At least one orthographic and one pictorial (isometric or perspective) sketch should be
developed for each concept. All sketches will be submitted with the final design for assessment.
Orthographic view of Container
Isometric view of container
5. Create a CAD solids model in Pro/DESKTOP including a rendering in an appropriate background.
6. Select a material that you will use for the manufacture of your waste container. Then, using the
mass properties capabilities in Pro/D, determine the total mass
of your finished waste container (this will be given in your lab questions.)
To see a list of common materials and their properties click
7. Develop a 2.5 to 3 minute PowerPoint presentation of your waste container design. Be certain to include
at least the following items in your presentation:
a. A minimum of 3 pictorial views of your design.
b. A list of specifications for your container design.
c. A description of the best features of your design.
d. A name for your product and a MSRP for the waste can.
8. Once you have completed a design as well as a finished rendering for your waste container, please answer the
following questions using Microsoft Word to create a file named "YourLastName Waste Can Questions".
Please save this on your H: drive under IBDT Documents.
a. What are two design procedures you followed to make certain your waste can design was safe for the end user?
b. What are two design procedures you followed to make certain your waste can design was useful for the end user?
c. What are two design procedures you followed to make certain your waste can design was durable for the end user?
d. Your waste can design could have been completed by hand using traditional drawing techniques. In your opinion,
what are the two most significant advantages of using CAD rather than traditional drawing techniques? Why?
e. Using the mass properties tool in Pro/DESKTOP, determine the height of the center of gravity (COG) above the bottom
of the container (floor level.) What is the height of the C of G (Z dimension)? Is this at or below 1/3 the total container height?
f. Select a shipping container that you will use to package and transport your waste container design.
Select a size that will minimize wasted space while shipping. Indicate the price of the shipping container.
Standard cardboard box sizes are available and may be priced by clicking here.
Using the technique demonstrated by Mr. Patterson, calculate the packaging efficiency for your container.
g. Designers almost always will say that they could improve a design if they had more time to work on the design. If you
had been given more time to work on your waste container, what two modifications or additions would you make
to improve its quality? Why?
Please note: Your design will be considered incomplete until questions a through g above are answered and the file is saved under "IBDT Documents" on your H: drive!
Overview - In this assignment , you will explore several of the quantitative
techniques engineers and designers use to make appropriate design decisions. For example, if a safety engineer knows that a new
elevator design will have a total passenger and elevator car weight slightly less than 3,800 pounds, would it be appropriate to use an elevator
cable with a 4,300 pound tensile strength? What would happen if two or three additional passengers squeeze into the elevator car? The results
could be disastrous!
You will see that designers and engineers don't guess in order to find solutions to a problem. Instead, they most often use quantitative (mathematically based) techniques
to arrive at a solution to a design problem. Now, that may sound overly rigid and suggest that designers and engineers would sacrifice aesthetics (qualitative elements) for
performance. Well, in some situations, this might be the case. (Let's face it - when you ride in an elevator, your main concern is to be able to move between floors quickly and safely.) In most
situations, design is a compromise between the quantitative (performance) and qualitative (aesthetic) characteristics of the product. (The elevator manufacturer wants to make
your ride on the elevator a pleasant journey, and the aesthetics of the elevator's interior contribute to the pleasantness of the journey!)
The Concepts - The quantitative design elements that will be studied in this activity include:
Mass, Density, and Specific Gravity - Click
to see how to calculate density and SG.
Mechanical Stress (Tensile, Compressive, and Shear) - Click
to see how to calculate stress.
Factor of Safety - Click
to see how to calculate factor of safety.
Percent Elongation - Click
to see how to calculate percent elongation.
Thermal Stress (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) - Click
to see how to use the coefficient
of thermal expansion to calculate a change in size resulting from a change in temperature.
Center of Gravity - The center of gravity calculation may be highly complex. We will use the computational power
built into our CAD program to determine the center of gravity.
to learn more about the center of gravity.
1. Determine the desired quantity for each of the following problems (show all of your work for full credit)
Need a calculator? Click on the calculator to access the calculator tool.
a. A 5.5" square wood column (vertically positioned and referred to as a 6 x 6) is used
in a basement to carry the load from the floor and partitions above it. Given that the
load on the column is 73,500 pounds, what is the unit stress (in PSI) that the column
b. Assuming that the maximum or failure stress for the material used in the column above is
3,200 PSI, what factor of safety was used in this application?
c. If the wood column were replaced with a hollow steel column that has a 3.5" O.D.
(outside diameter) and a 3" inside diameter (I.D.), what unit stress (in PSI) would be
present in the steel column?
d. If the designer wanted the steel column in problem C to have a factor of safety of 2.5,
what minimum compressive strength (PSI) would the steel need to demonstrate?
e. A tensile test specimen has an effective test length of 3.75 inches. During the test, the
specimen elongates .42 inches before fracturing. What percent elongation did this
f. An elevator cable has been rated for a maximum tensile load of 12,500 pounds. Knowing
that the factor of safety used in selecting the cable for the elevator application was 1.7,
what is the load at failure for this cable (in pounds)?
g. As a garage is being cleaned out, a cylinder of unidentified metal is found. Two IBDT
students, Ima Dweeb and Ura Goober just happen to be in the neighborhood. Ima and
Ura take the dimensions of the cylinder and determine that it has a 5 inch diameter and
19" length. The two students then weigh the cylinder and find that it has a total mass of
259.89 pounds. After collecting this data, the two young academians disagree in regard
to the type of material from which the cylinder is made. Ima insists that the cylinder is
gold (.697 lb./in3) while Ura is convinced that the cylinder is silver (.376 lb/in3). Which of these two young "academians" is more likely to earn a college scholarship?
(You must prove your answer mathematically!)
h. A polypropylene (plastic) tow rope is being used to tow a water skier. The rope, which
started out at 75 feet in length stretches out to total length of 84 feet. What percent elongation did the tow rope demonstrate?
i. A 28 ft. long standard steel I-Beam is installed at 60 degrees F. The temperature of
the beam may be raised as high as 125 degrees F when the furnace beneath it is in use.
What will be the exact length of the beam when its temperature is increased to this level?
j. A material has a density of .041 lb./in3. What is the specific gravity of this material and
will it float, sink, or be semi-bouyant?
k. Two pieces of material, one steel and the other polystyrene, are glued together. The steel piece is
a rectangular solid with the dimensions 1/8" x 5" x 11". The polystyrene is also a rectangular solid with the
dimensions 14" x 16" x 2". Knowing that the steel has a density of .284#/in3 and the polystyrene has a
density of .0006 #/in3, determine if the assembly will float, sink, or be semi-bouyant.
.94 or less
.95 to 1.05
1.06 or greater
Sinks (displaces water)
2. Answer each of the following questions using full sentences:
l. Using appropriate scientific terms, explain how it is possible for a human to lie down on
a "bed of nails" without doing serious injury to themselves.
Don't try this at home!!!!!!
m. State and explain 3 examples where a knowledge of physical stress is an essential knowledge
for professionals in medical fields (i.e. pediatrician, orthopedist, dentist, etc.)
n. There is an old phrase "...a little knowledge is a dangerous thing." It would seem that
this is particularly true when it comes to understanding factors of safety. Explain why.
o. Explain how is it possible that large ocean going vessels (ships), which are made
of steel (that has a specific gravity approaching 8) are capable of being
bouyant when steel itself is used as a material for ship anchors.
- As a class, we will perform 3 tensile tests using the Universal Testing Machine in E3.
- Begin this assignment by viewing several online references dealing with stress and strain.
to see a simple animation of a stress/strain test and the curve that develops.
Typical stress/strain curve with key points
to complete an exercise that will help you understand the difference between strength and stiffness.
to read an introduction to Young's Modulus (Modulus of Elasticity).
- Collect all test data (load and distance between platens) individually in your notebook using the format shown below. Do not lose this data - you
will be required to submit is as part of the lab.
- Calculate all stress and strain values individually.
- Draw one stress strain diagram with all three materials individually graphed.
Comparison of stress/strain curves for various materials
to see a typical stress/strain curve for a ductile thermoplastic (Lexan or polycarbonate.)
- Use a french curve to interpolate the data points on the graph.
- Label the essential elements of each curve using the following key and including:
ER = ELASTIC RANGE PL = PROPORTIONAL LIMIT EL = ELASTIC LIMIT or YIELD POINT (Click
to see more details about this.) PR = PLASTIC RANGE UTS = UTS (Ultimate Tensile Strength) or MAX. STRESS MS = MAX. STRAIN PF = POINT OF FAILURE or RUPTURE
- Label the primary axes for STRESS (PSI) and STRAIN (in/in)
- Color or pattern code the graph with a key for the materials.
- Calculate the modulus of elasticity (Young's Modulus) for each
material tested based on the stress/strain data calculated for each specimen.
- Here is a reference chart of Modulus of Elasticity ranges for various materials:
Tensile Strength and Modulus of Elasticity Values for Various Materials
Tensile Strength (PSI)
Mod. of Elasticity or Young's Modulus. (PSI)
12,000 to 63,000
32,000 to 88,000
12,000,000 to 17,000,000
32,000 to 66,000
600 to 1,400
60,000 to 103,000
- Write a lab report for this activity using the standard report format.
- Include the graph and 3 test specimen data charts with your report. (Click
to see the lab report format.)
- Working individually, you will create a flowchart that outlines a common, simple activity. The flowchart
will detail the procedural sequence of the activity. The activity should be completed according to common, ordinary standards and accepted
procedures (i.e. If you are going to make Jell-O, use water, not seltzer.)
to view a basic tutorial on flowcharts and associated symbols.
- You must declare the topic with Mr. Patterson before starting.
- The initial flowchart may be drawn by hand and the final flowchart will be drawn using the computer.
- A simple solution is to use MS Word (see below) and work with the drawing toolbar.
A palette of flowcharting symbols is included in MS Word.
- Both the initial sketch and the final Word file must be submitted for evaluation.
- Your flowchart must contain a minimum of 4 decision structures and 2 ultimate paths.
- Use arrowheads to indicate the direction of the flowpath.
- Keep the text in each element succinct, but of sufficient detail to make the flowpath understandable.
- Every path must have a definite start and end or loop structure.
- Use only standard flowcharting symbols to complete this task.
- Place a title at the top of the flowchart.
- Place your name at the top right of each page of the document.
How To Make A Flowchart
1. Determine the process to be defined. Make sure that "scope creep" doesn't appear. This occurs when you start out to flow just a certain process and then end up flowcharting multiple processes! Be concerned only with the scope of the topic you have declared.
2. Decide on the level of detail that's needed. This is important. Is a 10,000-foot level flowchart needed (something that could be seen from an airplane) or do you need one that is from a 100-foot level (the view from the top of a building)? This is called Macro or Micro Flowcharting.
3. Determine the process steps. Brainstorming can accomplish this. At this stage, it is not necessary to have the right sequence. The objective is to obtain all the steps that are thought to be taking place.
4 .Sequence the process steps. Use symbols here. I think that rectangles for basic process steps, diamonds for decisions (yes/no), and lines with arrowheads are sufficient.
5. Compare the flow chart to the actual process (in real time) for validation.
6. Identify those steps that should be targeted for elimination or improvement of the process.
"Despite the relative ease of performing flowcharting, there are some obstacles to be aware of. First, the process may not be
stable, meaning, it doesn't happen the same way each time. This is quite possible. Should you encounter this, try to
define it the way you believe it is occurring or how it works the majority of the time. Another challenge is that the process is
so complex, that trying to gain an understanding is difficult. The advice here is to start small by just perform flowcharting on
a portion of the process." (Source: www.tqie.com)
Overview - Working individually, you will select four (4) manufactured products and analyze them to
determine how they were manufactured. Each product you select should consist of
no fewer than two parts and no more than 4 parts. Your overall goal here is to verify
that the designers and/or manufacturing engineers made good design decisions in
the selection of materials and processes for the product.
References - You may want to review the basic manufacturing processes by clicking
here to view
a basic presentation on manufacturing processes.
Also, an excellent website with streaming video and animation called "How
Everyday Things Are Made"
from Stanford University may be viewed by
(The site requires DSL/Cable connection speeds or greater as well as the
Macromedia FlashPlayer plugin.)
- For each product you select, you will write a manufacturing analysis. This will consist of:
1. What is the name of the object?
What is the brand of the object?
What is the model name or model number?
2. What types of material(s) is it made from? (Use the IB Materials Matrix categories)
(i.e. timber, metals, ceramics, plastics, fibers, composites)
If the material is a plastic, does it have a recycling mark to help you determine
the type of plastic?
to see what type of plastic is indicated by the
various recycling symbols.
3. What specific materials were used for each of these parts (i.e. nylon, aluminum,
stainless steel, white oak, polystyrene, etc.)
4. What process(es) do you believe was/were used to form the product?
A website titled "Design inSite" may help you here. It includes a list of over
190 objects that are described by the type of material used to make the product
as well as the process. This site is very helpful. Spending some time browsing at
this site is a good idea! Click
to go to Design InSite.
Another website titled "How Products Are Made" may also be helpful. It includes 7 "chapters"
with approximately 100 products given in each chapter. The products are listed alphabetically,
so finding the product you are looking for may require some browsing.
this site is a good idea! Click
to go to How Products Are Made.
5. Find a graphic or diagram that outlines the basic procedure that was used to form the product.
Cite the source of the graphic or diagram and write a 2 or 3 sentence summary of the process.
6. What indication(s) exist(s) that would lead you to believe this/these process(es) were used?
7. Why is this process appropriate for this product?
8. Cite your sources of information, including all pictures and illustrations used.
Guidelines for selection of the four products:
Product 1 should be an inexpensive, "everyday" type of item that you use on a daily basis.
Product 2 should be a moderately-priced, time-saving device that allows you to perform some task efficiently.
Product 2 should be made from a different category of material than product 1 (i.e. metal vs. plastic.)
Product 3 should be an object with a complex shape and one that is capable of being recycled.
Product 3 should be manufactured using (a) manufacturing process(es) that is/are different from those for Products 1 and 2.
Product 4 should be a device that allows consumers to perform a certain task with a higher degree of safety than if the product were not used.
"The Pie Gate is a neat little kitchen gadget that is a great item to have on hand
if pies and tarts are on your favorite desserts list. It simpy unfolds and can be
inserted into a pie plate where it will sit right up against the side of the pie. From
here, it keeps the filling from oozing out into the plate after the pie has been cut and
keeps it fresh by acting as a barrier between the pie and the air."
(Pie Gate source is: http://bakingbites.com/2008/01/pie-gate/)
"Stripping kernels off a hot cob of corn with a knife can be a dangerous activity - a little slip-up can mean a big cut. And traditional corn strippers can be cumbersome to use, and just as easy to nick your hands on. The OXO Corn Stripper is the new generation of kitchen gadgets, marrying both cool form and functionality. The ergonomic tool fits inside you palm, like a computer's mouse, and makes the task of removing corn nibblets much safer (and quicker). It even catches the kernels in a container with marked measurements that hold up to 1/2 cup."
The Challenge: Each year, hundreds of new kitchen "gadgets" are developed and manufactured, each one claiming to be a "must have" product or one that you just can't live without any longer! Your task in this lab is to work as a design team, following the design cycle, to research, conceptualize, develop, and present a "new solution to an old problem." Each team member
will contribute to the design team in such roles as planner, designer, fabricator, and evaluator.
DESIGN BRIEF: Your team must write a design brief that will begin to guide
the team toward a "murky" (but existent) goal for your project. You won't be able
to develop a good design brief until you (as a team) have clearly identified a problem or a
need. In order to identify a need, a survey of your intended user group is often a good way to
obtain a quick, initial assessment of what interests or appeals to consumers.
- The steps involved in designing and representing the kitchen utensil will include:
1. Form your design team. Teams must consist of 3 or 4 students (teams of 3 are recommended.) Elect a Design Supervisor for the team. Submit a team list to Mr. Patterson listing the Design Supervisor and design team members.
2. Develop an interview form that may be used to collect free response data from the target user group. Be certain to include demographics that might be important to understand about the user group. You might want to start by asking what needs are unfulfilled or what tasks does the individual find to be difficult?
3. Administer the survey and bring responses back for group reading and analysis.
4. Using Microsoft Excel, create a simple report (using charts) on the survey responses. Be certain to be looking for trends or dominant responses. Are any needs or wishes showing up repeatedly?
6. Working as a full design team, develop a design brief (driven by the needs determined from the survey) that presents an initial design concept with loose constraints. Be specific in terms of what is desired (wishes) and what is required (demands.) Create a simple PowerPoint to use in presenting this information. Are you clearly showing there is a need? Explain and justify your wishes and your demands.
7. Present your initial design brief to the all IB Design Teams (1 to 2 minutes.)
8. Participate in a full class brainstorming session for concept generation. Click here comprehensive overview of brainstorming (a new window will open.) Your design team must record the brainstorming responses. It is suggested you obtain a minimum of 40 responses.
9. Create a Word file titled Target User Demographics and list the demographics of your intended customer base. Here are some specific examples of demographics you may want to consider:
Physical size (big and tall shop, golf clubs for shorter players, etc.)
Demographics/culture/religion (Ethnic products would fall into this category.)
Gender (Product examples are scarves for women, ties for men, etc.)
Age (Product examples are toys for children, jewelry for women, etc.)
Education (Product and service examples are encyclopedias, scientific calculators, etc.)
Geographic (take advantage of location by selling suntan lotion in Hawaii, fur coats in Alaska, etc.)
Creation of or response to a fad (hula hoops, "Pet Rock", Beanie Babies, etc.)
Social status (country club memberships, philanthropic contributions, etc.)
Special interest groups (antique collector, cat lover, science fiction reader, etc.)
Accessibility (urban vs. rural, subway commuter, people who read the Wall Street Journal, etc.)
Need for customization (home decorating, personal portrait, etc.)
Need for quality or durability (rock climbing equipment, carpenter's tools, etc.)
Personal preference (dark vs. light chocolate, flame broiled vs. fried, etc.)
10. Develop an online survey that collects input from your intended user group. You are limited to 10 questions, so be specific with your questions. Click here to the SurveyMonkey website which will allow you to create, distribute electronically, collect, and analyze survey data. Your survey must collect survey information from at least 20 people, 10 of whom may not be class members. You will need to give Mr. Patterson your login and password once your survey is completed so that he may verify completion of this task.
11. Develop concept sketches of your ideas individually. Then, share these ideas with your group.
to review the basic design elements that might help you.)
Simple example of a concept sketch
12. Collect, interpret, and use anthropometric data from the class for the design of the handle. Please note that this is not a user trial. You are simple collecting size preferences.
13. Develop your final concept sketches for your product working as a group. Make any final revisions to the product design now. Add basic dimensions to your sketch.
14. Select materials for each part of the final product (choosing from timber, metals, ceramics, plastics, textiles, and composites.) Materials should be selected according to their required performance characteristics.
Refer to the IBDT Properties/Materials Matrix by clicking
Note: To see a list of common materials and their properties click
15. Create a solids model (assembly) in Pro/DESKTOP. Complete both a design and a rendering (album.)
16. Create an appearance prototype of your concept. This is typically a non-functional prototype, but is built at an appropriate scale (usually full) to allow the designers to get feedback from a potential user group.
Sample appearance prototype that may be used for initial ergonomic testing.
17. Develop orthographic working drawings in Pro/DESKTOP. Add essential fabrication dimensions by hand.
18. Develop and present (as a design team) your PowerPoint that introduces your design to the class.
Sample presentation courtesy of Matt Saleh (Class of 2006)
Checklist for completion of the PowerPoint:
1. Your presentation should be between 2 and 3 minutes in length. (6 slides minimum)
2. Your presentation should give the name of the invention and the names of all members of the design team on the first slide.
3. Your presentation should present the specifications that were followed in development of the product.
4. Your presentation should show multiple viewpoints of the solids model and closeups of specific design details.
5. Use CTRL-ALT-Print Screen to copy your Pro/D screens and paste them into PowerPoint. Size them appropriately.
6. Use the PowerPoint picture cropping tool to remove unnecessary elements from the screen captures.
(These might include menus, toolbars, etc.)
7. Include a minimum of 1 picture of your appearance prototype in your presentation.
8. Emphasize and highlight the functional and ergonomic elements of your design. Also, be certain to outline
any unique features, characteristics, or advantages of your design in comparison with other products that are available.
Questions for completion of the lab:
19. Complete and submit the summary questions for this lab below.
a. Very few products are developed that demonstrate radical design. Select the kitchen product
design in our class that you believe comes closest to approaching radical design.
Explain and justify your selection.
b. The philosophy of "getting it right the first time around" is one that many designers
place great emphasis on. Unfortunately, in the real world, designs often must
evolve over several years (incrementally) from a marginal product into a great
product. Explain, if you were to redesign your product, two changes to the design
you would implement and explain how these changes would improve the overall quality
of the product.
c. You have served in the capacity as one of the lead designers for your product. Now, a manufacturing
firm has contacted you to inquire about producing and marketing your design. You decide
to sell your product design concept to the company and work for them as the director
of production for the new product. The head manufacturing engineer wants to start
production of the product immediately. You, however, suggest that further user trials
be conducted before actual manufacturing starts. In 3 to 5 sentences, defend your decision
to undertake further user trials before actual production begins.
Will your design use incremental or radical design methods? Click
to find out.)
- Anthropometric data for the hand is available:
to see anthropometric data for the human hand.)
Simple example of an anthropometric chart
- Need to know the thicknesses of various sheet metals that may be used? Here is a chart with gauge number and thickness:
Standard Steel Thickness (inches)
Galvanized Steel Thickness (inches)
Aluminum Thickness (inches)
- Numerous online tutorials for using Pro/DESKTOP version 8 are available:
to access a page that gives Pro/DESKTOP tutorial links.
1. We will begin this activity with a quick review of rotational molding.
Click here to see a simulation of rotational molding.
(Once the page loads, scroll down to animations to see the simulation.)
2. An additional review of rotational molding may be found by clicking
to watch a 2.5 minute video (with no audio) showing a large scale rotational molding operation.
3. The purpose of this lab is to develop a rotational molded part of the highest quality.
The part will be a child's play ball. The ideal product will display these qualities:
a. uniform wall thickness
b. sufficient hardness to prevent collapse when used by the child.
c. sufficient softness to prevent injury to child user by impact.
d. contain no unfused plastic powder.
e. no degradation of the plastic due to overheating during processing.
f. radial symmetry (no heavy spots to cause unpredictable rolling.)
g. minimal parting line blemish.
h. minimal surface porosity caused by air entrainment.
i. uniform coloring
4. A total of 8 (eight) molding attempts will be permitted. After each ball is molded, it will
be removed from the mold and cut open (halved) for analysis. The cut should
be made perpendicular to the parting line.
5. Create a notebook page to be used for recording data from each processing attempt.
The following data should be recorded for each processing run:
a. date and time of the completed process
b. type of powder
c. mold charge in grams
d. processing temperature (deg. F.)
e. processing time (minutes)
f. rotational speed (revolutions per minute)
g. cooling time (minutes until full solidification)
h. type of mold release compound
i. mass of the finished part (grams)
j. average wall thickness (thousandths of an inch)
k. air entrainment (# of air bubbles visible per square inch)
l. surface finish quality
m. recommendations for processing changes in the next molding attempt
with explanation of reasoning for the change.
6. Use a permanent fine point marker to mark each test piece (by processing date). Save the test pieces
for mounting on the display board.
Overview - This activity will use the spatula developed in assignment #11 as the basis for the planning of a manufacturing activity. Your
goal will be to develop a comprehensive, efficient plan for the manufacture of your spatula design. You will need to give attention to material selection,
processes (operations) and required equipment, and sequence of activities. In a sense, your job title here is Production Planner.
1. Watch the "Modern Marvels: Assembly Line" video. Answer the following questions:
a. Where did the original assembly (disassembly) line develop?
b. What did Ford do in the Highland Park factory that significantly changed auto manufacturing methods?
c. How did the assembly line impact Henry Ford's motorcar production?
d. How did workers respond to the implementation of assembly lines?
e. What was the impact of the assembly line on skills required in workers?
f. How did Henry Ford "repopulate" the assembly line and reduce absenteeism?
g. What negative impacts can assembly line working conditions have upon individuals (in the 1920's)?
h. What impact did the formation of unions have on working conditions in assembly lines?
i. How did assembly line techniques impact the average American consumer?
j. Why did American consumers initially reject homes built on the assembly line?
k. How did General Motors manage to compete with Henry Ford?
l. Who introduced the concept of "annual model change"? Why?
m. What were two impacts of wartime on the assembly line?
n. What revolutionary manufacturing technique was developed by Toyota? What was its impact?
o. What was a significant difference between the Japanese approach to the assembly line and the American approach in the late 1940's?
p. How did the Japanese method increase productivity on the assembly line?
2. We will start this activity by choosing the specific materials from which each component of the spatula will be made. You should make a list that looks like this:
Part NameIB Material CategorySpecific Material Name3 desirable properties and their degree
1. Read an article on planned obsolescence by clicking
2. Read through the Wikipedia entry on planned obsolescence by clicking
3. Watch a video titled The Story of Stuff online by clicking
here. (This video is 21 minutes in length.) Please note that this
will open in a new window and that the player has chapter titles that let you review any section at any time.
You might also want to view a transcript of this presentation. You may open a transcript of
"The Story of Stuff" by clicking
4. Write a minimum 400 word response that answers the following questions:
a. Name 3 products that you use that, in your opinion, illustrate the concept of planned obsolescence.
b. For each product, describe any reservations or concerns you have about using those products? Why or why not?
c. Name three positive impacts of planned obsolescence.
d. Name three negative impacts of planned obsolescence.
e. Do you believe it would be appropriate for our government to require manufacturers to offer products with greater longevity? Why or why not?
f. Annie Leonard mentions the concept of perceived obsolescence by stating "
Now perceived obsolescence convinces us to throw away stuff that is still perfectly useful." In your own words, define "perceived obsolescence" and explain its influence
on your personal behavior in regards to disposal of products.
5. Email your summary to Mr. Patterson at the end of the period on date TBA.
Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to apply the concepts of simple machines in the design, building, and testing
of a self-propelled vehicle. The vehicle will compete in a competition that assesses both accuracy in moving toward a target and in the
time required to reach the target.
The following specifications will be fully enforced in the vehicles which are built for this competition:
1. No chemical or electrical energy may be used to either move or guide the vehicle.
2. No tethers, cords, or leash-like devices may be used to stop the vehicle.
3. The vehicle must start and stop on its own. External forces may not act upon the vehicle to
control its movement. It must be a self-contained system.
4. No ramps or inclined planes may be used to start the vehicle. The vehicle must start at floor level.
5. No toys or existing cars may be used to solve the problem. The propulsion system
must be fabricated by the team.
Mod 1 - Building on 10/20, 10/21, 10/23, 10/24, 10/27, 10/29, 10/30
Vehicle testing on 11/5
Mod 3 - Building on 10/21, 10/22, 10/23, 10/27, 10/28, 10/29, 11/4
Vehicle testing on 11/6
Each of the three (3) test runs of the vehicle will be scored for time and accuracy.
A rendering of the track is shown below.
Note: Barriers 1 and 2 are 3 inches in diameter and 1 inch high.
The target is 3 inches in diameter and 1/2 inch high.
Overview - "We're entering an age of acceleration. The models underlying society at every level, which are largely based on a linear model of change, are going to have to be redefined. Because of the explosive power of exponential growth, the 21st century will be equivalent to 20,000 years of progress at today's rate of progress; organizations have to be able to redefine themselves at a faster and faster pace."
- Ray Kurzweil and Chris Meyer (www.kurzweilai.net)
1. Begin by reading an article on smart cards. Click
to read the article. (Purdue University)
to read an article that introduces us to "biocomputing".
to learn about the world of "smart" materials!
here to read an article titled "Hello, I'm Pump 235" which discusses "augmented reality.".
5. View Mr. Patterson's Artificial Intelligence Powerpoint presentation.
The purpose of this project is to look at the future impact of robotics, automation, and AI on society. To start this project,
each student will write a 450 to 550 word essay that will focus on the "world of the future." A discussion
of ethics related to technological change will also be conducted as a class with an opportunity for each student to express his/her opinion.
The Essay Component: You will begin this essay with the following phrase:
"The year is 2040, and I have been chosen to write about
how times have changed since I was a high school student."
Please note: You may not use any quotations in completing this assignment. All wording
must be your own.
The completed essay component is due on Friday, March 10th.
The final essay should be completed using a word processor (Word format preferred, other formats by arrangement.)
I would prefer that you submit the essay to me electronically (by e-mail.)
Questions for Panel Discussion
1. If in the future machines have the ability to reason, be self-aware, and have feelings, then what makes a human being a human being, and a robot a robot?
2. If you could have a robot that would do any task you like, a companion to do all the work that you'd prefer not to, would you? And if so, how do you think this might
affect you as a person?
3. Are there any kinds of robots that shouldn't be created or that you would not want to see created? Why?
4. Automation and the development of new technologies like robotics is viewed by most people as inevitable.
But many workers who lose their jobs consider this business practice unfair. Do you think the development of
new technologies, and their implementation, is inevitable? What, if anything, should we as a society do for those
people who lose their jobs?
The panel discussion will take place in class on Monday, March 13th. It will probably require the entire period to
complete the discussion. Every student must participate in the group discussion.
Here are some websites that may be helpful to you in preparing for this discussion:
to read an article titled "The Future of Robotics?" from
the www.roboscience.com website (Article will open in a new window.)
to read another article also titled "Robots of the Future" from
the FirstScience.com website (Article will open in a new window.)
to read an article titled "Robots May Be Built As Companions" from
the National Geographic website (Article will open in a new window.)
to read an article titled "Does Work Have A Future? Does Anyone?" from
the Islam Online website (Article will open in a new window.)
to read an article by Hans Moravec (from Carnegie Mellon
University) titled "Ripples and Puddles". If you are only going to read
one article, make it this one!!! (Article will open in a new window.)
to read an article titled How Robots will affect Future Generations
from Robotics Online (Article will open in a new window.)
"The factory of the future will have only two employees, a man and a dog. The
man will be there to feed the dog. The dog will be there to keep the man from
touching the equipment."
Warren Bennis, University of Southern California
Note: Before beginning this assignment, please make certain you have read all of the articles assigned in Assignment #20, The Car of the Future.
Overview - The purpose of this assignment is to create a plan for a future car and the manufacturing system for that car. As the Chief Implementation
Officer, you will be responsible for taking the car from concept to production including planning all aspects of the manufacturing facility. You have been given several directives by the Board of
Directors. They include:
1. Create a working environment that will emphasize productivity and efficiency.
2. Create a working environment that will be enjoyable, pleasant, and healthy for workers.
3. Create a factory that will demonstrate a high level of environmental stewardship.
4. Create a product that will exceed federal and customer expectations for emissions.
5. Create a product that will demonstrate exceptional fuel efficiency.
6. Create a product that demonstrates excellent ergonomic considerations and solutions.
1. Begin this activity by writing a 4 to 7 sentence design brief for the car. (See the DT dictionary for the definition of design brief.) Remember, a design brief does not try to give answers, only information.
A simple guide to writing a design brief may be viewed by clicking
Looking for an idea? Here's one - view it by clicking
Anyone interested in ethanol? Find out the basics of ethanol by clicking
2. Write the specifications list for your car design. A minimum of 5 specifications are required. The specifications should be supportive of the goals established in the design brief you have written.
The designed vehicle will:
1. Be capable of at least 45 miles per gallon in highway driving conditions.
2. Have zero emissions capability in city driving conditions.
3. Develop at least 2 concept sketches for your new design. Remember, concept sketches are usually done in pencil and tend to use mainly pictorial forms
of sketching. A concept sketch of one car design is shown below. Because concept sketches are sometimes used in legal proceedings, please sign and date your sketch. Your concept
sketches may be completed on plain, regular grid, or isometric grid paper.
4. This could be the perfect time to include radical design concepts! Develop one design feature for inclusion in your car that is a radical or incremental design concept. Explain what this concept is, how it
will benefit the end user (consumer), and why it is an example of radical or incremental design. Make a sketch (separate from your concept sketch) that illustrates this radical or incremental feature. Be certain to include annotation on the
sketch to help the viewer understand the concept.
New steering and control configuration for a car
5. Write a 2 or 3 paragraph description of the materials from which your design will be manufactured. Be certain to describe which parts
of the car will be made from certain materials and explain why the materials you have selected are most appropriate. You may want to refer
to the IBDT Material Properties Matrix.
to see the IBDT Material Properties Matrix .
to see a list of various materials (and their properties) that are commonly used in products.
Avoid materials that should not be used in the vehicle due to negative environmental impacts. Here are some online articles to help
you determine materials that you should avoid using:
here to read about wheel weight (balancing) alternatives to lead.
6. It is now appropriate to take a tour of a modern car factory. We will look at GM's new automotive assembly plant in Lansing, Michigan. Click
here to take the tour (Flash required).
Looking for an example of cutting edge technology in our neck of the woods? This rendering shows the Albany NanoTech complex with Business Incubator/Technology Accelerator on left, 300 mm
wafer R&D fab in center (both under construction) and existing 200mm wafer R&D facility on right.
7. Read these online articles to develop a perspective on the "factory of the future." As you read, consider which elements of the technology described would be of significant
benefit in your new factory and why they would be beneficial. The links to the articles are given below:
here to read an article titled "Factory of the Future" (pdf file).
here to read an article titled "Planning a Plant" (html file).
here to read an article titled "Scenario 2010: The Magic of Virtuality".
here to read an article titled "Visualizing Tomorrow's Industrial Environments".
here to read an article titled "The Factory of the Future" which proposes that the
post-industrial model is not an assembly line, but an assembly swarm."
here to read an article titled "Being There" which shows how virtual reality
is changing the way GM does its design work.
8. Write a 250-300 word statement of purpose for the product and factory. Be certain to address all six of the
directives mentioned in the overview of this lab in your statement of purpose. The statement should be word processed and spell checked before submission. Any quotations, of course, must be directly cited!
9. If you intend to include automation and robotics in your factory, include 3 pictures of robotics or automation systems that you will use and explain how each
will improve the quality of the product.
10. Write an environmental impact statement (assessment) for your factory.
here to see an outline for writing an environmental impact statement.
here to find a large list of online resources that may help you in this process.
11. Write a lab report for this project. Please be certain to answer the following questions as part of your report:
a. You did not perform a user study as you developed the incremental or radical feature for your model. Explain how a user study could have benefited your design.
b. Explain why specifications are an absolute necessity for all design projects. Please don't use responses identical to those you gave in the egg carrier lab.
c. Read through the six objectives you were given by the board of directors. In your opinion, which two of these six are the most important? Why?
NOTE: Be certain to submit your concept sketches, your written design brief and specifications, and your environmental impact statement with your lab report.
Follow the lab report guide which may be viewed by clicking